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Tuesday, 13 December 2011

Lesson 12 : Future Perfect ContinuousTense

USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Future


We use the Future Perfect Continuous to show that something will continue up until a particular event or time in the future. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Friday" are all durations which can be used with the Future Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous and the Past Perfect Continuous; however, with Future Perfect Continuous, the duration stops at or before a reference point in the future.
Examples:
  • They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Thomas arrives.
  • She is going to have been working at that company for three years when it finally closes.
  • James will have been teaching at the university for more than a year by the time he leaves for Asia.
  • How long will you have been studying when you graduate?
  • We are going to have been driving for over three days straight when we get to Anchorage.
  • A: When you finish your English course, will you have been living in New Zealand for over a year?
    B: No, I will not have been living here that long.
Notice in the examples above that the reference points (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because these future events are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.

USE 2 Cause of Something in the Future


Using the Future Perfect Continuous before another action in the future is a good way to show cause and effect.
Examples:
  • Jason will be tired when he gets home because he will have been jogging for over an hour.
  • Claudia's English will be perfect when she returns to Germany because she is going to have been studying English in the United States for over two years.

Future Continuous vs. Future Perfect Continuous

If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since Friday," many English speakers choose to use the Future Continuous rather than the Future Perfect Continuous. Be careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence. Future Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Future Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the future. Study the examples below to understand the difference.
Examples:
  • He will be tired because he will be exercising so hard.
    This sentence emphasizes that he will be tired because he will be exercising at that exact moment in the future.
  • He will be tired because he will have been exercising so hard.
    This sentence emphasizes that he will be tired because he will have been exercising for a period of time. It is possible that he will still be exercising at that moment OR that he will just have finished.

REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses

Like all future forms, the Future Perfect Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous is used.
Examples:
  • You won't get a promotion until you will have been working here as long as Tim. Not Correct
  • You won't get a promotion until you have been working here as long as Tim. Correct

AND REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Future Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Future Perfect .
Examples:
  • Ned will have been having his driver's license for over two years. Not Correct
  • Ned will have had his driver's license for over two years. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
  • You will only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.
  • Will you only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives?
  • You are only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.
  • Are you only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:
  • The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. Active
  • The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished. Passive
  • The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. Active
  • The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished. Passive
NOTE: Passive forms of the Future Perfect Continuous are not common.

Lesson 11 : Future PerfectTense

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Future


The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future.
Examples:
  • By next November, I will have received my promotion.
  • By the time he gets home, she is going to have cleaned the entire house.
  • I am not going to have finished this test by 3 o'clock.
  • Will she have learned enough Chinese to communicate before she moves to Beijing?
  • Sam is probably going to have completed the proposal by the time he leaves this afternoon.
  • By the time I finish this course, I will have taken ten tests.
  • How many countries are you going to have visited by the time you turn 50?
Notice in the examples above that the reference points (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because the interruptions are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.

USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Future (Non-Continuous Verbs)


With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Future Perfect to show that something will continue up until another action in the future.
Examples:
  • I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave.
  • By Monday, Susan is going to have had my book for a week.
Although the above use of Future Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses

Like all future forms, the Future Perfect cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect, Present Perfect is used.
Examples:
  • I am going to see a movie when I will have finished my homework. Not Correct
  • I am going to see a movie when I have finished my homework. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
  • You will only have learned a few words.
  • Will you only have learned a few words?
  • You are only going to have learned a few words.
  • Are you only going to have learned a few words?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:
  • They will have completed the project before the deadline. Active
  • The project will have been completed before the deadline. Passive
  • They are going to have completed the project before the deadline. Active
  • The project is going to have been completed before the deadline. Passive
 
 

Saturday, 10 December 2011

Lesson 10 : Future ContinuousTense

USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Future


Use the Future Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorter action in the future. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.
Examples:
  • I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight.
  • I will be waiting for you when your bus arrives.
  • I am going to be staying at the Madison Hotel, if anything happens and you need to contact me.
  • He will be studying at the library tonight, so he will not see Jennifer when she arrives.
Notice in the examples above that the interruptions (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because the interruptions are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.

USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption in the Future


In USE 1, described above, the Future Continuous is interrupted by a short action in the future. In addition to using short actions as interruptions, you can also use a specific time as an interruption.
Examples:
  • Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to be eating dinner.
    I will be in the process of eating dinner.
  • At midnight tonight, we will still be driving through the desert.
    We will be in the process of driving through the desert.

REMEMBER

In the Simple Future, a specific time is used to show the time an action will begin or end. In the Future Continuous, a specific time interrupts the action.
Examples:
  • Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to eat dinner.
    I am going to start eating at 6 PM.
  • Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to be eating dinner.
    I am going to start earlier and I will be in the process of eating dinner at 6 PM.

USE 3 Parallel Actions in the Future


When you use the Future Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions will be happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.
Examples:
  • I am going to be studying and he is going to be making dinner.
  • Tonight, they will be eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time.
  • While Ellen is reading, Tim will be watching television.
    Notice "is reading" because of the time clause containing "while." (See Explanation Below)

USE 4 Atmosphere in the Future

In English, we often use a series of Parallel Actions to describe atmosphere at a specific point in the future.
Example:
  • When I arrive at the party, everybody is going to be celebrating. Some will be dancing. Others are going to be talking. A few people will be eating pizza, and several people are going to be drinking beer. They always do the same thing.

REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses

Like all future tenses, the Future Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Continuous, Present Continuous is used.
Examples:
  • While I am going to be finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. Not Correct
  • While I am finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. Correct

AND REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Future Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Future.
Examples:
  • Jane will be being at my house when you arrive. Not Correct
  • Jane will be at my house when you arrive. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
  • You will still be waiting for her when her plane arrives.
  • Will you still be waiting for her when her plane arrives?
  • You are still going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives.
  • Are you still going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:
  • At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be washing the dishes. Active
  • At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by John. Passive
  • At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes. Active
  • At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John. Passive
NOTE: Passive forms of the Future Continuous are not common.

Lesson 9 : Simple FutureTense

USE 1 "Will" to Express a Voluntary Action

"Will" often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action is one the speaker offers to do for someone else. Often, we use "will" to respond to someone else's complaint or request for help. We also use "will" when we request that someone help us or volunteer to do something for us. Similarly, we use "will not" or "won't" when we refuse to voluntarily do something.
Examples:
  • I will send you the information when I get it.
  • I will translate the email, so Mr. Smith can read it.
  • Will you help me move this heavy table?
  • Will you make dinner?
  • I will not do your homework for you.
  • I won't do all the housework myself!
  • A: I'm really hungry.
    B: I'll make some sandwiches.
  • A: I'm so tired. I'm about to fall asleep.
    B: I'll get you some coffee.
  • A: The phone is ringing.
    B: I'll get it.

USE 2 "Will" to Express a Promise

"Will" is usually used in promises.
Examples:
  • I will call you when I arrive.
  • If I am elected President of the United States, I will make sure everyone has access to inexpensive health insurance.
  • I promise I will not tell him about the surprise party.
  • Don't worry, I'll be careful.
  • I won't tell anyone your secret.

USE 3 "Be going to" to Express a Plan

"Be going to" expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person intends to do something in the future. It does not matter whether the plan is realistic or not.
Examples:
  • He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii.
  • She is not going to spend her vacation in Hawaii.
  • A: When are we going to meet each other tonight?
    B: We are going to meet at 6 PM.
  • I'm going to be an actor when I grow up.
  • Michelle is going to begin medical school next year.
  • They are going to drive all the way to Alaska.
  • Who are you going to invite to the party?
  • A: Who is going to make John's birthday cake?
    B: Sue is going to make John's birthday cake.

USE 4 "Will" or "Be Going to" to Express a Prediction

Both "will" and "be going to" can express the idea of a general prediction about the future. Predictions are guesses about what might happen in the future. In "prediction" sentences, the subject usually has little control over the future and therefore USES 1-3 do not apply. In the following examples, there is no difference in meaning.
Examples:
  • The year 2222 will be a very interesting year.
  • The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year.
  • John Smith will be the next President.
  • John Smith is going to be the next President.
  • The movie "Zenith" will win several Academy Awards.
  • The movie "Zenith" is going to win several Academy Awards.

IMPORTANT

In the Simple Future, it is not always clear which USE the speaker has in mind. Often, there is more than one way to interpret a sentence's meaning.

No Future in Time Clauses

Like all future forms, the Simple Future cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Simple Future, Simple Present is used.
Examples:
  • When you will arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Not Correct
  • When you arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
  • You will never help him.
  • Will you ever help him?
  • You are never going to meet Jane.
  • Are you ever going to meet Jane?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:
  • John will finish the work by 5:00 PM. Active
  • The work will be finished by 5:00 PM. Passive
  • Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight. Active
  • A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight. Passive
 

 

Lesson 8 : Pass Perfect ContinuousTense

USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Past


We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. "For five minutes" and "for two weeks" are both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous; however, the duration does not continue until now, it stops before something else in the past.
Examples:
  • They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived.
  • She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business.
  • How long had you been waiting to get on the bus?
  • Mike wanted to sit down because he had been standing all day at work.
  • James had been teaching at the university for more than a year before he left for Asia.
  • A: How long had you been studying Turkish before you moved to Ankara?
    B: I had not been studying Turkish very long.

USE 2 Cause of Something in the Past


Using the Past Perfect Continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause and effect.
Examples:
  • Jason was tired because he had been jogging.
  • Sam gained weight because he had been overeating.
  • Betty failed the final test because she had not been attending class.

Past Continuous vs. Past Perfect Continuous

If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since Friday," many English speakers choose to use the Past Continuous rather than the Past Perfect Continuous. Be careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence. Past Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Past Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the past. Study the examples below to understand the difference.
Examples:
  • He was tired because he was exercising so hard.
    This sentence emphasizes that he was tired because he was exercising at that exact moment.
  • He was tired because he had been exercising so hard.
    This sentence emphasizes that he was tired because he had been exercising over a period of time. It is possible that he was still exercising at that moment OR that he had just finished.

REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Past Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Past Perfect.
Examples:
  • The motorcycle had been belonging to George for years before Tina bought it. Not Correct
  • The motorcycle had belonged to George for years before Tina bought it. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
  • You had only been waiting there for a few minutes when she arrived.
  • Had you only been waiting there for a few minutes when she arrived?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:
  • Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant's fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris. Active
  • The restaurant's fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris. Passive
 

Lesson 7 : Pass Perfect Tense

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past


The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.
Examples:
  • I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.
  • I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
  • Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
  • Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?
  • She only understood the movie because she had read the book.
  • Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.
  • We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.
  • A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?
    B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.

USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)


With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.
Examples:
  • We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.
  • By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.
  • They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.
Although the above use of Past Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect


Unlike with the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect. Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary.
Example:
  • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

MOREOVER

If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect when "before" or "after" is used in the sentence. The words "before" and "after" actually tell you what happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct.
Examples:
  • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
  • She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

HOWEVER


If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used.
Examples:
  • She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct
  • She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
  • You had previously studied English before you moved to New York.
  • Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:
  • George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic's license. Active
  • Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic's license. Passive
 
 

Wednesday, 7 December 2011

Lesson 6 : Present Perfect ContinuousTense

USE 1 Duration from the Past Until Now


We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous.
Examples:
  • They have been talking for the last hour.
  • She has been working at that company for three years.
  • What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes?
  • James has been teaching at the university since June.
  • We have been waiting here for over two hours!
  • Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days?

USE 2 Recently, Lately


You can also use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as "for two weeks." Without the duration, the tense has a more general meaning of "lately." We often use the words "lately" or "recently" to emphasize this meaning.
Examples:
  • Recently, I have been feeling really tired.
  • She has been watching too much television lately.
  • Have you been exercising lately?
  • Mary has been feeling a little depressed.
  • Lisa has not been practicing her English.
  • What have you been doing?

IMPORTANT

Remember that the Present Perfect Continuous has the meaning of "lately" or "recently." If you use the Present Perfect Continuous in a question such as "Have you been feeling alright?", it can suggest that the person looks sick or unhealthy. A question such as "Have you been smoking?" can suggest that you smell the smoke on the person. Using this tense in a question suggests you can see, smell, hear or feel the results of the action. It is possible to insult someone by using this tense incorrectly.

REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Present Perfect.
Examples:
  • Sam has been having his car for two years. Not Correct
  • Sam has had his car for two years. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
  • You have only been waiting here for one hour.
  • Have you only been waiting here for one hour?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:
  • Recently, John has been doing the work. Active
  • Recently, the work has been being done by John. Passive
NOTE: Present Perfect Continuous is less commonly used in its passive form.